The Master Regulator of Cellular Metabolism
NAD+ is short for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a chemical compound used by every cell in your body. Chemically speaking, there is a difference between NAD+ and other forms of NAD. NAD+ is the oxidized form of NAD while NADH is the reduced form of NAD. We are currently interested in the oxidised form of NAD+. Not only is it essential for mitochondrial function where it is involved in the production of ATP (cellular energy) but it also acts as a cofactor for metabolism, DNA repair and epigenetic signalling. On top of this, NAD+ may also increase levels of cyclic ADP-ribose, which is a messenger molecule responsible for the exchange of information inside and outside of cells.
NAD+ is an essential direct cofactor of key enzymes responsible for longevity called sirtuins. Sirtuins, specifically SIRT1 and SIRT3, are intimately related to longevity through their control of gene expression and require NAD+ for their activity.
Research into the sirtuins continues to yield substantial information on how to control aging. By activating these sirtuins, we’re able to gain control over one of our body’s anti-aging “switches.” SIRT enzymes “turn off” certain genes that promote aging, such as those involved in inflammation, in fat synthesis and storage, and in blood sugar management.
Researchers have found that NAD+ levels are directly related to aging: as we age, levels of NAD+ decline. NAD+ levels decline in everybody as they age regardless of your personal health, diet, or physical fitness. NAD+ levels decrease by 40% over the age of 60.
The idea behind NAD+ is that we can artificially raise these levels and trick the body’s cells into thinking we’re younger. A research team led by Dr. David Sinclair of Harvard Medical School found that “raising NAD+ levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse.” In other words, “Examining muscle from two-year-old mice that had been given the NAD-producing compound for just one week, the researchers looked for indicators of insulin resistance, inflammation and muscle wasting. In all three instances, tissue from the mice resembled that of six-month-old mice. In human years, this would be like a 60-year-old converting to a 20-year-old in these specific areas.”
How Does NAD+ Reverse the Effects of Aging?
Generally speaking, NAD+ enables the transfer of energy from the foods we eat to our cells.
NAD+ has been linked with a number of powerful biological processes.
These processes reverse the effects of aging by making your cells look – and act – younger:
— Promote Sirtuin Gene Activation (using SIRT1 and SIRT3)
— Enhance The Growth And Efficiency Of Mitochondria, Which Boosts Physical And Mental Energy Throughout The Body
— Optimize Metabolism
— Enhance Cognitive Health And Reverse The Effects Of Aging On The Brain
— Promote Insulin Sensitivity And Encourage Healthy Blood Sugar Levels
— Repair DNA
Together, these benefits reverse the effects of aging in every cell of the body. As we age, levels of NAD+ decrease. This makes it difficult for cells to process the energy they need – their mitochondrial function is severely impaired.
Mitochondrial depletion in every cell of the body is one of the major reasons behind the physical symptoms of aging. Declining NAD+ and mitochondrial function leads to neurodegeneration, vascular inflammation, increased fat storage, increased fat production, insulin resistance, fatigue, and loss of muscle strength.
How to take NAD
NAD is not effective when taken orally so at this stage is limited to daily infusions to build up your levels which can then be maintained with the use of oral precursers. The precursers available include Nicotinamide (Vit B3) which can be recycled to NAD+. Doses up to 600mg a day should be effective however exceeding this dose could potentially result in a decrease of NAD+ due to a negative feedback effect. Nicotinic acid is another option but is known to cause a flushing side effect. Finally Nicotinamide Riboside is also available and appears to be the best option we have thus far with studies showing it effectively increasing NAD levels with no side effects.
Lifestyle factors such as ingesting fewer calories, taking antioxidants, exercise and decreasing inflammation in the body can also help increase NAD+ levels.
Inflammation, oxidation and aging are a major cause of the decline of NAD+ levels so should be avoided.
Both Nicotinamide riboside capsules or NAD+ injections are available from us on prescription.We were the first in Australia to introduce this ground breaking treatment into this country with the assistance of one of America’s leading experts on NAD treatments.
Contact us for details.