The Master Regulator of Cellular Metabolism
NAD+ is short for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a vitamin B3 compound used by every cell in your body. It has been well established for decades that NAD is critical for cellular metabolism as it is directly involved in mitochondrial function and ATP production. Chemically speaking, there is a difference between NAD+ and other forms of NAD. NAD+ is the oxidized form of NAD while NADH is the reduced form of NAD. We are currently interested in the oxidised form of NAD+. Not only is it essential for mitochondrial function but more recently it has been discovered that it is also in involved with DNA repair and epigenetic signalling through its regulation of sirtuin enzymes. On top of this, NAD+ may also increase levels of cyclic ADP-ribose, which is a messenger molecule responsible for the exchange of information inside and outside of cells.
NAD+ is an essential direct cofactor of key enzymes responsible for longevity called sirtuins. Sirtuins, specifically SIRT1 and SIRT3, are intimately related to longevity through their control of gene expression and require NAD+ for their activity.
Research into the sirtuins continues to yield substantial information on how to control aging. By activating these sirtuins, we’re able to gain control over anti-aging “switches.” SIRT enzymes “turn off” certain genes that promote aging, such as those involved in inflammation, in fat synthesis and storage, and in blood sugar management.
Researchers have found that NAD+ levels decline with age and believe this decline may be directly related to aging. NAD+ levels decline in everybody as they age regardless of your personal health, diet, or physical fitness. NAD+ levels decrease by 40% over the age of 60.
Many NAD+ researchers believe if we can artificially raise NAD+ levels through supplementing it can trick the body’s cells into thinking we’re younger. A research team led by Dr. David Sinclair of Harvard Medical School found that “raising NAD+ levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse.” In other words, “Examining muscle from two-year-old mice that had been given the NAD-producing compound for just one week, the researchers looked for indicators of insulin resistance, inflammation and muscle wasting. In all three instances, tissue from the mice resembled that of six-month-old mice. In human years, this would be like a 60-year-old converting to a 20-year-old in these specific areas.” Human studies are also underway to determine if similar benefits occur for us however results will be a few years off yet, although initial results are encouraging.
Potential Benefits of NAD+?
— Promote Sirtuin Gene Activation (using SIRT1 and SIRT3)
— Enhance The Growth And Efficiency Of Mitochondria
— Optimize Metabolism through the Krebs Cycle.
— Enhance Cognitive Health
— Promote Insulin Sensitivity And Encourage Healthy Blood Sugar Levels
— Repair DNA
NAD+ has also been used in the USA for decades to help drug addicts withdrawal from drugs of addiction such as alcohol, opiates, amphetamines, etc without experiencing any withdrawal symptoms and without the sedation caused by other withdrawal treatments.
How to take NAD
NAD is not effective when taken orally so at this stage is limited to daily infusions for several days to build up your levels which can then be maintained with the use of oral precursers. The precursers available include Nicotinamide (Vit B3) which can be recycled to NAD+. Doses up to 600mg a day should be effective however exceeding this dose could potentially result in a decrease of NAD+ due to a negative feedback effect. Nicotinic acid is another option but is known to cause a flushing side effect. Finally Nicotinamide Riboside is also available and this appears to be the best option with studies showing it effectively increases NAD+ levels in humans by 30% with no side effects.
Lifestyle factors such as ingesting fewer calories, taking antioxidants, exercise and decreasing inflammation in the body can also help increase NAD+ levels.
Inflammation, oxidation and aging are a major cause of the decline of NAD+ levels so should be avoided.
Nicotinamide riboside capsules are available from us on prescription. NAD+ infusions are only available through certain doctors clinics. We were able to introduce this compound into Australia with the assistance of one of America’s leading experts on NAD who has administered NAD to thousands of patients over his career.
NAD+ infusions have been used in humans since the 1960’s to treat drug addiction with an impeccable safety record. The only side effect reported occurs during the infusion process and can easily be overcome by slowing down the rate of administration.
Contact us for details.