In order to determine the ideal ingredients to be used in our cosmeceutical range to help nourish the skin we first need to consider the components of the skin and then attempt to mimic the same composition. The skin is composed of an outer layer known as the epidermis which is composed of keratinocyte cells which serves as a protective barrier in combination with several lipids (fats) which include ceramides, cholesterol and fatty acids. The outermost layer of the epidermis known as the stratum corneum contains natural moisturizing factor (NMF). It is a complex mixture of water soluble compounds, such as amino acids, organic acids, urea, and inorganic ions. This NMF makes up about 10% of the stratum corneum. And the major components of this NMF is sodium lactate, urea, and pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (or sodium PCA).
Underneath the epidermis lies the dermis layer which is composed mainly of collagen, elastin and what is called ground substance which is composed mainly of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin. Sebaceous glands within these skin layers secrete sebum onto the skin which forms the majority of lipids that cover the skin.
The composition of sebum is approximately 45% triglycerides, 25% wax esters, 12% squalene, 10% fatty acids and 4% cholesterol while the compsition of the epidermis is 30-35% fatty acids (with the majority being oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid), 30-35% ceramides and 30-35% cholesterol. Phosphatidylcholine is the major constituent of all cell membranes so is another important lipid found in skin cells.
Our aim is to create a cream that mimic’s the composition of the epidermis and sebum in order to nourish the skin with ingredients that can help it maintain its barrier function. In addition supporting collagen and hyaluronic acid production in the deeper dermal layer helps maintain the elasticity and structure of the skin. Collagen itself is too large a protein to absorb through the skin so cannot be effectively used in face creams so we need to find ways to boost its production with ingredents like Vitamin C, Palmitoyl Oligopeptide, N-Acetyl Glucosamine, niacinamide and retinol while hyaluronic acid production can be supported with ingredients such as Acetyl Glucosamine and niacinamide.
Skin identical ingredients used in our skin identical base to mimic those found in the skin include squalene, cholesterol, Ceramides 1, Cereamide 2, Ceremide 3, Phosphatidylcholine, Low Molecular Weight (LMW) hyaluronic acid, glycerol, urea, Jojoba oil which has a chemical composition close to the skins sebum including wax esters and fatty acids, and finally Passionfruit oil for its fatty acid content. Fatty acids are found in all natural oils so there are many to chose from however we chose passion fruit oil as it contains a fatty acid profile high in those fatty acids which are predominant in human skin.
With these skin identical ingredients combined with effective key ingredients we created a product range that can help support the skin’s natural ability to function normally, support the skin’s barrier function, help fight environmental stress with stable antioxidants and help smooth wrinkles with cell-communicating ingredients.
Click here for our cosmeceutical range